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My Facial Feminisation Thesis

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My Facial Feminisation Thesis



This thesis represents most the knowledge I have accumulated working on facial feminisation since I started in 2002. I have brought this together with a re-evaluation of the established research and some of the widely held ideas about facial gender and FFS. I hope it will be read by surgeons as well as patients.

I am probably one of the only artists in the world to have worked at such length and in such detail on the sex characteristics of the human face so I hope this thesis will be a useful contribution to the subject. I have tried to write it in an informal manner rather than in the style of a scientific paper as I want it to be approachable for patients who may not have a detailed knowledge of facial anatomy and the associated terminology. Also, although I have drawn heavily on science, this thesis is just as much about the "art" of FFS and my own sense of what works based on experience.

The philosopher Karl Popper believed that science progresses not by proving theories to be right but by proving them to be wrong and I'm sure that some of the ideas I express in this thesis will need to be revised in the future but I do think it is a good and comprehensive account of male and female facial differences, especially as they apply to facial feminisation.

The thesis is divided into 10 parts and to navigate around them, please use these links at the bottom of each page:


Part 1: Common Misconceptions

Part 2: The Established Research

Part 3: Prototypes

Part 4: Sexual Dimorphism of the Face Feature by Feature

Part 5: Relative Proportions

Part 6: Female Neoteny and Feminisation as a Subtractive Process

Part 7: Objective and Subjective Femininity

Part 8: How Feminine is Feminine Enough?

Part 9: Beauty

Part 10: The Man in the Mirror/Self Perception